The worst conditions were found in the Reichsgau Wartheland, which the Nazis treated as a laboratory for their anti-religious policies. 48 During the war, Warsaw libraries lost about a million volumes, or 30 of their collections. Price-Patterson Ltd., Retrieved on 2009-05-b Ferguson 2006,. . 184 a b c Salmonowicz 1994,. . Żuchowskiego, Toruń ( Sztuka i Kultura,. This policy was, however, reversed at timesfirst before the elections in October 1939; 74 and later, after the German conquest of France. 27 According to another, only 105 of pre-war Poland's 175 museums survived the war, and just 33 of these institutions were able to reopen. Initial efforts were directed towards creating a negative image of pre-war Poland, 18 and later efforts were aimed at fostering anti-Soviet, antisemitic, and pro-German attitudes. 10 Shuttered museums were replaced by occasional art exhibitions that frequently conveyed propagandist themes. Retrieved on Kisling 2001,. . 18 19 In Łódź, the Germans forced Jews to help destroy a monument to a Polish hero, Tadeusz Kościuszko, and filmed them committing the act. The reasoning behind this policy was clearly articulated by a Nazi gauleiter : "In my district, any Pole who shows signs of intelligence will be shot." 22 As part of their program to suppress Polish culture, the German Nazis attempted.

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158160 Salmonowicz 1994,. . Google Print,.57 a b c d Salmonowicz 1994,. . 7 During the following weeks Polish schools beyond middle vocational levels were closed, as were theaters and many other cultural institutions. 109 Theater was also active in the Jewish ghettos and in the camps for Polish war prisoners. 100 Books were also sometimes printed. 127 Grabski, Józef (2003). 10 Ironically, restrictions on cultural performances were eased in Jewish ghettos, given that the Germans wished to distract ghetto inhabitants and prevent them from grasping their eventual fate. Nevertheless, underground organizations and individuals in particular the. 58, isbn Salmonowicz, Stanisław (1994 Polskie Państwo Podziemne (Polish Underground State) (in Polish Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne, ISBchabas, William (2000 Genocide in international law: the crimes of salope de black amatrice fellation crimes, Cambridge University Press, isbn Sterling, Eric; Roth, John. 115 Some artists recorded life and death in occupied Poland; despite German bans on Poles using cameras, photographs and even films were taken. Within ten to twenty years, the Polish territories under German occupation were to be entirely cleared of ethnic Poles and settled by German colonists. 127129 (in German) Madajczyk, Czesław, (1980 "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte: Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse." Studia Historiae Oeconomicae, 14 a b c d e Redzik, Adam (2004). 115 All of these activities were supported by the Underground State's Department of Culture. Polish literature and language studies were dissolved by the Soviet authorities, and the Polish language was replaced with Russian or Ukrainian. 233 (in Polish) Tajna Organizacja Nauczycielska in wiem Encyklopedia. 26 Destruction edit See also: List of Polish cities damaged in World War II Many places of learning and cultureuniversities, schools, libraries, museums, theaters and cinemaswere either closed or designated as " Nur für Deutsche " (For Germans Only). 7 10 He and Frank agreed that opportunities for the Poles to experience their culture should be severely restricted: no theaters, cinemas or cabarets; no access to radio or press; and no education. 185 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 38 The specific policy varied from territory to territory, but in general, there was no Polish-language education at all. 1 2, policies aimed at cultural genocide resulted in the deaths of thousands of scholars and artists, and the theft and destruction of innumerable cultural artifacts. 78 These Departments oversaw efforts to save from looting and destruction works of art in state and private collections (most notably, the giant paintings by Jan Matejko that were concealed throughout the war). 130 Madajczyk 1970,. . Retrieved on b c d e f Knuth 2003,. . 419 Ferguson 2006,. . 72 73 They included Jerzy Borejsza, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Kazimierz Brandys, Janina Broniewska, Jan Brzoza, Teodor Bujnicki, Leon Chwistek, Zuzanna Ginczanka, Halina Górska, Mieczysław Jastrun, Stefan Jędrychowski, Stanisław Jerzy Lec, Tadeusz Łopalewski, Juliusz Kleiner, Jan Kott, Jalu Kurek, Karol Kuryluk, Leopold. 115 Polish underground artists included Eryk Lipiński, Stanisław Miedza-Tomaszewski, Stanisław Ostoja-Chrostowski, and Konstanty Maria Sopoćko. 38 It was expected that Polish children would begin to work once they finished their primary education at age 12. 40 In the eastern territories not included in the General Government ( Bezirk Bialystok, Reichskommissariat Ostland and Reichskommissariat Ukraine ) many primary schools were closed, and most education was conducted in non-Polish languages such as Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Lithuanian.



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240 (in Polish Cholewa-Selo, Anna (2005 Muza i Jutrzenka. 53 55 All pre-war newspapers were closed, and the few that were published during the occupation were new creations under the total control of the Germans. Retrieved on June 15, 2008 a b Madajczyk 1970,. . 85 Overall, in that period in the General Government, one of every three children was receiving some sort of education from the underground organizations; the number rose to about 70 for children old enough to attend secondary school. 10 As all profits from Polish cinemas were officially directed toward German war production, attendance was discouraged by the Polish underground; a famous underground slogan declared: " Tylko świnie siedzą w kinie " Only pigs attend the movies. Events and individuals connected with the war are ubiquitous on TV, on radio and in the print media. 96 Some schools semi-openly taught unauthorized subjects in defiance of the German authorities. 88 In Warsaw, there were over 70 underground schools, with 2,000 teachers and 21,000  students. The only Polish-language newspaper published in occupied Poland was also closed, and the arrests of Polish intellectuals began.

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