112 Polish music, including orchestras, also went underground. 27 Polish flags and other symbols were confiscated. 55 The press was reduced from over 2,000 publications to a few dozen, all censored by the Germans. 38 The specific policy varied from territory to territory, but in general, there was no Polish-language education at all. (2003 History of Education Reform in Post-Communism Poland, 19891999: Historical and Contemporary Effects on Educational Transition Archived at the Wayback Machine, dissertation at the Ohio State University, Retrieved on Madajczyk 1970,. . 72 The Soviet propaganda-motivated support for Polish-language cultural activities, however, clashed with the official policy of Russification. 124 The most famous song of the soldiers fighting under the Allies was the Czerwone maki na Monte Cassino (The Red Poppies on Monte Cassino composed by Feliks Konarski and Alfred Schultz in 1944. (in Polish) Albert, Zygmunt (1989 Kaźń profesorów lwowskichlipiec 1941collection of documents, Wrocław, University of Wrocław Press. 128138 a b c d Bukowska, Ewa, (2003 Secret Teaching in Poland in the Years 1939 to 1945, London Branch of the Polish Home Army Ex-Servicemen's Association. Independent Poland lasted for only 21 years before it was again attacked and divided among foreign powers. September 30 October.

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75 Soon, however, Stalin decided to re-implement the Russification policies. 49 Other important patrons of Polish culture included the Roman Catholic Church and Polish aristocrats, who likewise supported artists and safeguarded Polish heritage (notable patrons included Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha and a former politician, Janusz Radziwił ). Of twenty-thirty spacious school buildings which Kraków had before 1939, today the worst two buildings are used. 94 The German attitude to underground education varied depending on whether it took place in the General Government or the annexed territories. 204 Drozdowski, Zahorski 2004. 107 Many writers did not survive the war, among them Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Wacław Berent, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Tadeusz Gajcy, Zuzanna Ginczanka, Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski, Stefan Kiedrzyński, Janusz Korczak, Halina Krahelska, Tadeusz Hollender, Witold Hulewicz, Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski, Włodzimierz Pietrzak, Leon Pomirowski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer and Bruno Schulz. 7 During the following weeks Polish schools beyond middle vocational levels were closed, as were theaters and many other cultural institutions. 49 Also occasionally sponsored were secret art exhibitions, theater performances and concerts. Destroyed in Warsaw, September 1939. Announcement of an art exhibition in the Sukiennice Cloth Hall : "How German artists see the General Government" The Germans prohibited publication of any regular Polish-language book, literary study or scholarly paper. The Spoils of War: World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property, New York: Harry. 24 Even exotic animals were taken from the zoos. 10 Ironically, restrictions on cultural performances were eased in Jewish ghettos, given that the Germans wished to distract ghetto inhabitants and prevent them from grasping their eventual fate.

and Education, which was created in autumn 1941 and headed by Czesław Wycech, creator of the TON. 45 Moreover, the sale of Jewish literature was banned throughout Poland. 11 a b c d Raack 1995,. . 228 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. . 88 In Warsaw, there were over 70 underground schools, with 2,000 teachers and 21,000  students. 10 Further directives issued in the spring and early summer reflected policies that had been outlined by Frank and Goebbels during the previous autumn. 5 By 1 October, Germany and the Soviet Union had completely overrun Poland, although the Polish government never formally surrendered, and the Polish Underground State, subordinate to the Polish government-in-exile, was soon formed. 9 83 84 More than 90,000 secondary-school pupils attended underground classes held by nearly 6,000 teachers between 19 in four districts of the General Government (centered on the cities of Warsaw, Kraków, Radom and Lublin ). 72 73 They included Jerzy Borejsza, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Kazimierz Brandys, Janina Broniewska, Jan Brzoza, Teodor Bujnicki, Leon Chwistek, Zuzanna Ginczanka, Halina Górska, Mieczysław Jastrun, Stefan Jędrychowski, Stanisław Jerzy Lec, Tadeusz Łopalewski, Juliusz Kleiner, Jan Kott, Jalu Kurek, Karol Kuryluk, Leopold. Others died, including over 20,000 military officers who perished in the Katyn massacres.





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100 The two largest underground publishers were the Bureau of Information and Propaganda of Armia Krajowa and the Government Delegation for Poland. 68 In line with Soviet anti-religious policy, churches and religious organizations were persecuted. Retrieved on March 26, 2008 References edit Anders, Władysław (1995 Bez ostatniego rozdziału (in Polish Lublin: Test, isbn Conway, John. Wstępny raport o stanie wiedzy (Losses of Libraries During World War II within the Polish Borders of 1945. Events and individuals connected with the war are ubiquitous on TV, on radio and in the print media.

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